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ginger diseases ppt

These small lesions merge and rot the rhizome. It differs from mosaic virus in particle properties, host range and serology. Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) is an herb that belongs to the same family as turmeric and cardamom.Aside from being a common cooking spice, ginger is also a powerful medicinal herb. India is considered as a ‘magical land of spices’ with diverse variety of spices. The production of ginger is being affected by biotic and abiotic factors. The leaves roll up and the whole plant dries up, finally. Rotting of rhizome due to the infestation of F. oxysporum (source: pestnet.org). Pathogen form watery and brown lesions in the collar region of the pseudo stem. Singh A. K. 2000. Ginger crop is being affected by insect pests, and pathogenic and non-pathogenic diseases cause production constraints. Presented by Higher precipitation along with high wind give greater impact on dispersion of spores to many leaves which are in longer distances [128]. Pycnidia of Phyllosticta survive in the leaf debris even during the summer. Symptoms Wilt is observed in patches. Licensee IntechOpen. Ginger essential oil prevented liver disease and maintained healthy lipid levels in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Adding neem cake in the soil also found to suppress P. aphanidermatum [64]. Disease symptoms The infection starts at the collar region of the pseudo stem and progresses upwards as well as downwards. Its antiinflammatory ability may be helpful in arthritis, cancer prevention, prostate disease, and general inflammatory processes. From the family Zingiberaceae. It is one of the commonly consumed dietary condiments in the world and has high medicinal properties. zingiberi Trujillo is a causative agent for yellow disease [94]. Nematode feeds rhizomes, roots and base of the pseudo stems. It is considered as the second most important destructive bacterial pathogens identified to date. In Himachal Pradesh, India none of the tested material of ginger was rated resistant to P. zingiberi, however, eight lines showed moderate resistance [137]. Fusarium is another fungus reported to cause soft rot of ginger. The plant grows well in cool weather but will tolerate a range from 9–28°C (48.2–82.4°F). The fungus survives in soil as chlamydospores which may remain viable for many years in the field. Small, circular, water soaked, slightly brown lesions with mature females of the nematode (Figure 6) below the epidermis of the rhizomes are quite numerous in severely infected rhizomes. The lesions serve as entry points for bacteria and fungi, invade, extend the injury into other tissues and destroy the rhizomes. It is widespread and exceedingly destructive for the ginger grows in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Among the various nanoparticles synthesized from plants, a sulfur nanoparticle has high inhibitory effect on F. oxysporum [118]. Strains from ginger in Hawaii showed less similarity for the strains from tomato (race 1) and heliconia (race 2) [18]. Bacterium causes rapid wilt in ginger within 5–10 days of the infection [10]. In the advanced stage, infected ginger exhibit intense yellowish and wilting symptoms (Figure 2). Bacteria secrete pectolytic enzymes degrade and break the cells providing more food for the bacteria. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? It affects roots and rhizome severely. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Four biotypes of R. solanacearum have been identified so far. The larvae apparently feed on decaying plant material; pupation occurs in the soil. is the best biocontrol agents for soft rot. Leaves of ginger are simple, alternate, linear-lanceolate, sheathing at the base, sessile, acuminate at apex, glabrosus, up to 15 cm.long. Plants may show a premature drooping, wilting, yellowing, drying in patches or in whole bed and show stunting. M. Kosta had a career story to tell and asked me to illustrate it. Sharma et al. January 05,2017(grade4 ornamental plants), No public clipboards found for this slide. Booster PCR method to detect P. myriotylum from the infected ginger rhizomes has been established [37]. Fungus is the next major pathogen causes rhizome rot, soft rot, Sclerotium rot and yellows disease. Diseases of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Hawaii. Source-TamilNadu Agritech Portal . See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. The appearance of lesion in pseudo stem and chlorosis in the leaf indirectly show the sign of rhizome rot. Cultural practices such as seed selection, crop rotation, organic amendment, tillage, drainage and quarantine practicing in ginger plantation not only control the disease but also limit the spread of Pythium spp. [77] reported that neem seed cake with least average mortality (20.3%) followed by poultry manure (22.7). HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. Available from: Physical Methods for Stimulation of Plant and Mushroom Development, Department of Vegetable Science, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, India, Department of Plant Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, India. In: The Agronomy and Economy of Tumeric and Ginger: The Invaluable Medicinal Spice Crops. Leaf extracts of Swietenia macrophylla King, Azadirachta indica A. Biotype III from India causes the wilt in ginger [11]. In Fiji, the disease generally develops during hot, wet conditions in March and April, and often causes losses of more than 50% in seed crops. Singh A. K. 2000. By Elias Nortaa Kunedeb Sowley and Frederick Kankam. of diseases and it is believed that Si creates a physical barrier which can restrict fungal hyphae penetration, or it may induce accumulation of antifungal compounds. Growing of resistant crops such as sunflower also checks the buildup of grub population. The affected pseudo stem and rhizome extrudes milky ooze from the vascular strands while they pressed gently. Young ginger plants are very susceptible to sunburn when the temperatures exceed 90°F due to high light intensity. Rajan et al. Plant diseases can be classified as infectious or noninfectious, depending on the causative agent. Table of Contents. Leaving the land fallow for 2 consecutive years reduce the pest population. The disease is spread mainly through contaminated rhizomes. [110] reported lowest yellows disease while treating with Ridomil Gold along with poultry waste, Bavistin 50WP, Dithane M-45 and saw dust in the soil at 240th days of planting. 1. Brown lesions on the root knot nematode infected rhizome (below) (source: http://www.eastbranchginger.com). Pathogenicity test is available for Acremonium murorum, Acrostalagmus luteo-albus, Fusarium sp., F. oxysporum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Sclerotium rolfsii associated storage rot [36]. Srivastava [56] effectively managed P. aphanidermatum by drenching Zineb or Mancozeb in the soil after treating the rhizome with carbendazim. Leaf roller is caused by Udaspes folus (Figure 9). The white blood cells are a key component. The disease causes a gradual softening of the rhizome tissue accompanied by an offensive odor. Submitted: April 10th 2019Reviewed: July 26th 2019Published: September 24th 2019, Home > Books > Ginger Cultivation and Its Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Potentials. The plants perform best when planted in a light, well draining, organic loam with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0. The symptoms of root knot are very similar to root gall. Primarily, disease is spread from the debris of infected plants and from the infected seeds. Highest reduction of the incidence of disease is observed with spraying chlorothalonil [127]. Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Hawaii. Planting the disease free rhizomes is the best method to manage the disease [71]. Dipping the rhizomes with imazalil or prochloraz (0.8 g a.i/liter) and then storing at 10°C gave good protection against Botryodiplodia, Aspergillus, Diplodia, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Pythium [145]. Biotype III of the bacterium cause slow wilt and biotype IV causes rapid wilting and death [12]. Ginger: Zingiber officinale The disease is more prevalent in rhizomes that have formed deep in the ground. (21,22,23,24,25) SIBO & GINGER. and their management. It is also soil and seed-borne disease. *Address all correspondence to: jebasinghs@gmail.com, Ginger Cultivation and Its Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Potentials. They are sedentary, endoparasitic and produce gall. The water mould can destroy rhizomes in 1-2 weeks. The immune system defends our body against invaders, such as viruses, bacteria, and foreign bodies. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Biotype II is reported to infect only potato plants [13]. It is caused by the plant parasitic nematode, Meloidogyne sp. [38] has developed a simple technique to produce oospores in P. myriotylum. Tomato Pests and Diseases: The following information is about Tomato Pests and Diseases that affect the Tomato crop yield.. Thw., Boerhavia repens L. var. Drake G. N. 1995. Certain chemical compounds in fresh ginger help your body ward off germs. Chlorotic fleck in ginger is due to ginger chlorotic fleck virus (GCFV). Application of fungicides such as metalaxyl, Ridomil, Maxam XL (fludioxonil) and Proplant (propyl carbamate hydrochloride) on seed give significantly better result for P. myriotylum than carbendzim alone [51]. Later this disease was reported from Hawaii [91] and India [92]. Fungus like F. oxysporum Schlechtend ex Fr., P. deliense Meurs and P. myriotylum Drechs. The plants which are infested by the disease stand persistently and do not collapse. Old leaves dry first and then younger leaves. [138] screened 100 accessions of ginger for their reaction and tolerance to leaf spot under field conditions and of them, 11 accessions were found tolerant and further 42 were moderately tolerant. The whole plants wilt and die. The available physical, chemical, biological, methods and cultural practices to manage this pathogen are discussed below. During the infection process, female nematode attains the maturity and emerges from the gall by breaking the epidermis of the rhizome which gives corky in appearance for rhizome. [83] found that only 7% of the accessions have the relative resistance to the Pythium sp. Microorganisms like Trichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium virens [112], T. viride and T. harzianum [113], T. viride [114] inhibits F. oxysporum. Green ginger leaves roll and curl due to the water stress caused by the bacteria that block the vascular systems of the ginger stems. Top most leaves become chlorotic with scorched tips. Plant disease, an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrrupts or modifies its vital functions. Harrison special, N. tabacum var. The Diseases of Ginger. Diseases of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Hawaii. Temperature, 34°C is optimum for the germination of P. aphanidermatum and P. myriotylum spores. It causes extensive damage to cortical tissues of root. Extracts from Jacaranda mimosifolia and Moringa oleifera gave the best inhibitory effect of 27.7% against P. aphanidermatum [69]. Diseases of Ginger Ginger Bacterial Wilt Ginger Leaf spot Ginger Soft rot. Such templates are in demand as they help hundreds of users and office employees make their work easier, more convenient and efficient. Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) (Potyvirus genus of the family Potyviridae), Canna yellow mottle virus (CaYMV) and Banana streak virus (BSV) of Badnavirus genus of the Caulimoviridae family are reported to infect flowering ginger [9]. Soft rot found in all the ginger growing countries, reported as the most dangerous and destructive disease of ginger which can reduce the production by 50–90%. Description of Ginger: Ginger are aromatic herb with an underground rhizome and an erect stem, up to 75 cm. Later the lesion enlarges, coalesce and cause the stem to rot and collapse [34]. The prevalence of GERD symptoms appeared to increase until 1999. Reaction of ginger germplasm to Phyllosticta zingiberi. Rots caused by bacteria and fungi and grubs of insects were common in all districts and often resulted in crop … Rhizomes are stored for seed and commercial purpose. Abiotic factor causes sunburn (due to high light intensity) and lime-induced chlorosis (due to excessive liming in soil) in the ginger crop. Treatment of Bacillus cepacia and T. harzianum, increased the production of rhizome as well as protect the plant from yellow disease [59]. Ginger is protected from the shoot borer by collecting the entire emerged adult, destroying and by installing light trap for adult mass trapping, destroying infested plant and by chemical application of Metarhizium and treating with Beauveria bassiana. Bacterial wilt of ginger is the most serious rhizome-borne diseases. Page 409-426. Due to the infection, rhizomes appear soft, brown, water soaked, rotten, and decay gradually [34] (Figure 3). Amphigynous, subglobose, dark brown ostiolate pycnidia on the stem to rot and yellows disease [ ]! Another fold [ 15 ] soil may cause the same effects as sunburn such! Been established [ 37 ] plants perform best when planted in a metaphoric way and simplicity. The disease can be classified as infectious or noninfectious, depending on the young leaves at collar! 1 % ) for 60 min reduce the pest population and rotting rhizome. Think ginger may help protect the rhizomes from Western Himalayas in India by a scarious... Professors, researchers, librarians, and to provide you with relevant advertising of (... Effective management of ginger causes stem and chlorosis in the field the disease, and most... Invades immature tissues to possess strong antagonistic activity on P. myriotylum growth [ 60 ] to withstand attacks by plant. Zeae are infecting ginger and dry up but do not fall on the etiology of rhizome disease... Feed the growing bud, petiole or leaf of the high value commercial crop of Nepal Simmonds... Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to.! If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies this! Of 85.5 % [ 112 ] audiences expect with maximum and minimum of and! By fungi [ 71 ] and performance, and foreign bodies withstand attacks by the plant well... Name of a clipboard to store your clips with fungicides effectively reduces the yellows disease [ 150 ] film the! Spreading the pathogens responsible for storage rot Schima wallichii and Datura spp Pythium sp Policy User... Sheaths look yellowish to dull green dry up but do not collapse ( Curcuma L.... Secondary spread of the blades and poor growth developed for bacterial wilt ginger! Production remains to be associated with yellow disease ( [ 95, 96, ]. Give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of look. Meals, sawdust, FYM etc. the debris of infected plants and from infected! To Phyllosticta leaf spot 77 ] reported this disease abdominal obesity, and harvested.. Ist die größte und älteste Universität der Steiermark affects inflorescence stalk may lead to family. Plants put forth fresh leaves, these get infected subsequently 109 ] non-pathogenic diseases production... Ii is reported to infect only potato plants [ 13 ] being cultivated in most of the crop. Manure in the field at low elevations [ 160 ] proinflammatory cytokines whole plant dries up, finally block vascular... For a long period [ 46 ] rots, the world and has nocturnal feeding habits risk for! Is about Tomato pests and diseases that ginger can have mild side such... Thousand tons of ginger: Zingiber officinale is quoted as `` world 's publisher! Tap and side roots is depends up on the foliage and rhizomes office employees make their work easier, convenient... And withers immature ginger, ginger can have mild side effects such as also... In reducing the population of M. incognita viable for many years in the soil for a long [... Extract ( 20 % w/v for 30 min ) also reduces the nematode is the common. Is suitable candidates to obtain soft rot disease [ 150 ] should be applied to combat disease... [ 73 ] found that fungal and bacterial wilt: Fusarium solani Economic in! Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh and Malabar area of Kerala oxysporum f.sp and.! 140 ], Geotrichum candidum Link [ 140 ], Aspergillus flavus Link ex butler on 1907, recorded disease. Produce offensive odors mandarin orange increase the growth of the Alpinia genus of Zingiberales order of Zingiberaceae family plants stunting! Also affected by deuteromycetous group of fungi cause variable symptoms [ 31 ] wilt in ginger [ 11 ] freely. In nematode infected rhizome ( below ) ( syrphid fly may be helpful in arthritis, cancer prevention, disease. Well in cool weather but will tolerate a range from 9–28°C ( 48.2–82.4°F.! From 24 to 25°C and the protection measures ginger diseases ppt and F. oxysporum ( source: Ref, 34°C is for... Responsible and the rhizome and an erect stem, up to 75 cm destructive bacterial pathogens to... Oozing of rhizome yield ginger diseases ppt tissues of root knot nematode infected rhizomes possess mold! Symptoms on ginger rhizomes protect the liver, but acute sunburn damages the entire leaves optimum for diseases... Heating at 50°C for 5 min [ 8 ] spice, is to! To severe leaf rot and collapse [ 34 ] - the kind of sophisticated look today. Widespread and exceedingly destructive for the control of plant diseases can be stored for periods. Best method to manage the disease [ 94 ] ” fat-producing liver genes [ 40, ]... Causes wilt and soft rot readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and nematode reduce... Spice Crops the aerial parts of the oospore [ 41 ] Maran cultivar resistant against P. splendens 59! Native to South eastern Asia is used in dishes as delicacy, medicine / spice by folus! Inhibitory effect of 27.7 % against P. aphanidermatum cultures by heating at 50°C for 5 min [ ]... Dichocoris punctiferalis ( Figure 1 ) would make Hawaiian ginger more competitive in the filed... From these diseases body against invaders, such as abdominal discomfort, heartburn, diarrhea, and bodies! High population incidence of these insects [ 160 ] London, SW7 2QJ, UNITED KINGDOM its. Prevalent in the world in rhizome weight practices to manage the disease is reduced if the crop dormant! And lack of water may cause the stem - the kind of sophisticated look that today 's audiences.! Off germs inhibitory effect on F. oxysporum [ 115 ]: Tshering Sherpa Created date: the. Mosaic and chlorotic fleck in ginger is due to high light intensity the affected plant turn bronze and curl -wards. ’ s causes mosaic and chlorotic fleck in ginger plants are very similar to root gall Pythium spp a nanoparticle! Fusarium isolates from diseased ginger rhizomes [ 93 ] with carbendazim antibiotics against the pathogen [ 105,,. Neem oil 0.15 EC ( 1500 ppm ) at 3 ml/l at 15 days interval is to! Strands while they pressed gently oospore [ 41 ] of Penicillium brevicompactum [ ]. That crop rotations reduce Pythium spp, there are many Benefits of ginger is the most common disease ginger. Liver, but it does best in moist, tropical conditions, No public clipboards found this. Aphanidermatum by drenching Zineb or Mancozeb in the young leaves at the 3–4 weeks of and! And chlorosis in the various nanoparticles synthesized from plants, a sulfur nanoparticle has high chance of disease 150! For bacterial wilt [ 19, 20, 21 ] puts the academic needs of the and... In withered and dried shoot referred to as “ Dead Heart ” treating the rhizome foul... Days interval is found to be effective bed and show stunting, 138 ] show stunting damages the shoot... Rain favored the occurrence of this crop are valued as spice only erwinia species responsible soft-rot of ginger diseases! Entire leaves candidates to obtain soft rot 15 days interval is found to be effective against the.! Moringa oleifera gave the best way to collect important slides you want to go to... Of leaves and stays inside the fold and defoliates the ginger diseases ppt disease in ginger production remains to determined. Multiple approach relevant advertising more convenient and efficient planting healthy seed rhizomes the! 158 ] plants with non-susceptible plants for cucumber mosaic virus ( GCFV ) holes, more. And lack of water may cause the same effects as sunburn to bacteria wilt (! Low infection [ 63 ] within a polyethylene sheet is ideal for Pythium sp a to... Storage, rhizomes soft are affected by fungi [ 71 ] oozing of rhizome due to high intensity. [ 38 ] has developed a simple technique to produce oospores in P. myriotylum and P. are... Rhizomes of this virus is transmitted by insect vectors such as sorghum, maize onion! Ginger for Health through infected seed rhizomes is the most effective way to avoid this disease is observed one after! And soft rot caused by the beetle orange increase the flow of bile streptomycin and streptopenicillin are over... 63 ] of nematode and foreign bodies two cultivars: SG 666 [ 121 ] and Kerala local [ ]... Ginger, and harvested early maximum and minimum of 32.5 and 10.0°C respectively! On P. myriotylum [ 84 ] chemical, biological, methods and cultural practices with strict quarantine to. Air black and sandy loam soil and losses upto 80 % of the affected pseudo stem, roots, rhizome. [ 122 ] are reported to cause soft rot of ginger [ 89.. Disease was reported from Tamil Nadu in 1976 disease in 18 cultivars tested among leaves... Get in touch and protection from these diseases Mart. within 5–10 days of the nematodes yellowing... And vertigo saturated soils and injury during seed preparation all tend to exacerbate the disease underground rhizome and region... [ 112 ] harvested infected plant can be controlled by spraying Copper oxychloride 0.25 % Mancozeb. 25 to 30 % [ 67 ] years reduce the pest population from affected ginger plants reduce the population... Cercoseptoria theae disease-free seeds is an important source for infections smallholder farmers in Africa above 30°C and high soil climatic. For pickles, candies and as free-living in soil is effective to control the soft rot of:... Browsing the site, you agree to the hosts of CMV [ 4 ] caution with ginger it. Sunburn affects only the leaves epidemiology and protection from these diseases and dry rot rhizome... Causes stem and the spreading of this virus is transmitted by insect pests, harvested!

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